Citations, quoting and paraphrasing
Any source material incorporated into written work must be referenced with three parts:
- an in-text citation, such as a footnote or reference in parentheses with information about the source (e.g. page number, title, author name, date of publication);
- quotation marks placed around words or passages taken verbatim from the source;
- a complete entry for the source in a Bibliography or list of Works Cited at the end of the document.
Faculty should model appropriate citation formats by citing material used in lectures and providing examples of citation styles with assignment guidelines. Faculty should provide students with information on relevant resources regarding citation methods (e.g. materials from writing centres, libraries, or disciplinary-based research and writing guides).
When using an idea that is summarized or paraphrased, a citation and bibliography entry are required. Paraphrasing is referencing someone else’s ideas in your own words and requires a citation. When in doubt, cite but also keep note of what is common knowledge and does not have to be cited. Source material is cited as an acknowledgement that the work of others has contributed to an individual’s work. Citations also acknowledge an idea or passage that should be associated with a particular author’s opinion or work. Never use material if a complete citation is not possible.
- Tip Sheet: Quotations (Writing at U of T)
- Tip Sheet: Standard Documentation Formats (Writing at U of T)
- Tip Sheet: Paraphrase and Summary (Writing at U of T)
- Tip Sheet: Citing Sources & Avoiding Plagiarism (U of T Library)
- Tip Sheet: Summarizing (Writing at U of T)
- Library Workshops